Clan MacInnes YDNA Project
Clan MacInnes has established a DNA Project for all Clan MacInnes surname variations with the vendor Family Tree DNA. We are currently focusing on the male lines as these are the more definitive tests. Anyone can get their DNA tested and compared to other MacInnes members. We have FTDNA admins who are looking at the data and making comparisons. We also have a Clan Genealogist with over 25,000 names electronically filed.
Consider joining the YDNA project at https://www.familytreedna.com/project-join-request.aspx?group=MacInnes, Clan MacInnes Project will match you against other members and place you in a Haplogroup submember catagory. Fill out the form before or after you take the test. After you get results, there is another area where you can add projects. Also send in your family tree so we can collect a large database of MacInnes names. The more information we have makes the database much more valuable.
What tests should I get?
DNA Testing is one of the most complicated subjects, there is no easy way to describe what is going on. An explanation is listed below, but most people just want to know what tests to do.
The answer to what test to do is another question, what do you want to achieve? Depending on what results you want to achieve depends on what test you should do. Or some people will do all the tests. You can also do DNA tests to determine if you have health risks with certain carriers. Some of these companies are listed in our links page.
For history purposes, there are three sets of DNA tests. Many companies offer some or all the tests. We will use FTDNA terminology.
1) Family Finder - this is also called autosomal DNA testing. Each person gets the 22 pairs of information chromosomes from there parents. For each generation following, half the data changes to the new partener. So this data will change rapidly with each descendant. This test is good for finding recent relatives, down to about a 3rd cousin. Used by adopted children or families that are uncertain who there siblings might be, or to find long list relatives. Many companies offer this service.
2) mtDNA - mitochondria DNA test. This tests the X chromosome which is directly passed from the mother. This can be used to trace back your mothers origins, and her mothers origins, etc. So you can match with others that may have had a similar mother, but which one is not accurate as this gene does not mutate very much. So this can tell you ethinicty and what regions you are from, but not as usful as other tests. If you want to find out more about your mother, this is a good test.
3) YDNA - females have two X sex genes, and males an X and a Y. The Y gene is passed directly from male to male, and after a number of generations will mutate. By looking at how many mutations have occured, a male person can see how close they are matched to another. Tests are priced by the number of markes looke at, it starts at 12, and then 25, 37, 67, 111 and something called the Big Y which is 700 markers. The higher number of markers, the better accuracy the results. We recommend at least 37, but 67 will get you better results. You can start out with 37 and if you have a number of matches, you can always upgrade to a higher level without retaking the test. Only males of the direct line can take this test. For the Clan MacInnes Project, this is the only test we use to determine which lineage you may match.
The FTDNA admins will look at each person and try to match them into a group of other people who have similar 25 marker matches or more. This then will give you an idea of what MacInnes' you match.
MacInnes is not a singular family, many people had the name from Angus. So several groups have been formed for those families.
You can get pricing and other information on FTDNA https://www.familytreedna.com . The Clan MacInnes Project request is at https://www.familytreedna.com/project-join-request.aspx?group=MacInnes .You will get a swap kit to send in, and after you get your results you can join the Clan MacInnes Project.
The human DNA has 23 paired chromosomes, 22 pairs of information chromosomes and one sex chromosome. This full 23 paired set is called a genome. Each parent passes an X sex chomosome for the female and an X or Y sex chromosome from the male which will determine the sex of the child. The YDNA is passed from male to male directly with the Y-chromosome which only males possess. Inside this chromosome are specific areas called locus, or loci for multiple locations. At each one of these patterns is a repeating structure called an allele. The DNA test counts these markers through what is called the Short Tandem Repeat (STR). So when you order a 12-marker test, which defaults to using the STR, the researchers count each site (locus) and determine the repeat number (allele). There is another test called the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) test that can be used to determine the haplogroup. More information is below on the haplogroups.
Over time the allele can mutate. The longer the time, the more probable a mutation has occurred and the allele count varies from species to species. So the closer one matches with another, the probability increases that the common ancestor is more recent.
DNA is all a statistical game. Humans first descended from certain areas (supposedly we all descended from a single pair, like the biblical Adam and Eve). Certain patterns emerge from each line from the 12 marker test. This line is called a haplogroup. So people that have a Celtic or Viking background, like MacInnes, have a specific haplogroup. Within each haplogroup are sub categories called subclaves There are two main groups for most people of Scottish descent. The R1a group is considered the Viking branch, actually the subclave R1a1. This group is often found in Eastern Europe. The other main group is the R1b group, or Celtic branch. This group is found most often in Western Europe. We have MacInnes from both R1a and R1b categories, with the Celtic R1b being the most prevalent.
This DNA information can be used in one of several ways that almost always supplement the physical genealogy trees that have been discovered from the family information. YDNA cannot detail family relationships, just ancestry relationships and origins. The 22 information DNA is used for finding other family members. This set gets new information for each generation, so it changes rapidly. The 3rd cousin is about as far as this test can go.
The marker matches of different people can be used to discover or confirm family members as being related. This would cover more recent generations. Usually the surnames are the same or very similar. However this information does not cover adoptions or other ways where members may not match.
The other DNA use is called deep ancestry or roots origination. Many members do not have strong matches, but can use the information to see what regions they are from, if they are Celtic or Viking based, and other general information. There are also extra tests to help determine the haplogroup and subclave.
The 12 marker test does not tell very much information, some of the MacInnes DNA project members have 1000s 12 marker exact matches. The only test that gives recent generation information is the 25 marker test. The 37 test will reveal more, 67 even more, the 111 markers more and a Big Y test that has 700 markers, mainly used to trace specific family markers. Even if you are not an exact match at the 25 or 37, the 67 and 111 marker can start to eliminate certain people and advance the dates of a common ancestor. So if you can afford it, go for the higher number. Once the sample is sent in, you can upgrade to a higher marker level at any time. IACM recommends the 37 or 67 to start with.
Clan MacInnes related
The public FamilyTreeDNA has limited information. With the European privacy issues, many people no longer give access. You can see some results on their public page.
|A real MacInnes example of a family match|
DNA group section
|Protected by password for Project members only.
Groupings of matched data by name
Update February 21, 2021
|If you are in the MacInnes DNA group, you can now access this data.
for the password.
Other good sites for DNA analysis and information